It has also been argued that the concept of hegemonic masculinity does not adequately describe a realness of power. New York: Harcourt Brace. January Heterosexual men and boys with effeminate characteristics ran the risk of being scorned as well.
Study of the history of masculinity emerged during the s, aided by the fields of women's and later gender history. These traits are contrasted with more positive aspects of hegemonic masculinity such as "pride in [one's] ability to win at sports, to maintain solidarity with a friend, to succeed at work, or to provide for [one's] family".
Androcracy Androcentrism. More likely to face bullying and harassment throughout their lives,  they are taunted by derogatory words such as " sissy " implying feminine qualities.
For example, Competitive advantage of representing the masculine looking Gay Men while argues that the hegemonic masculinity framework lends itself to a modified essentialism, wherein the "achievement of masculine goals is frequently attributed to a way of thinking understood as inherent to the male psyche, and in relation to an innate disposition for homosocial bonding".
As gender relations evolve and women's movements grow stronger, the dynamics of masculinities may see a complete abolition of power differentials and a more equitable relationship between men and women and between men and other men.
London New York: Routledge. Farmington Hills, Michigan: Macmillan Reference. In Gergen, Mary M. He writes that the "crisis" is not a recent phenomenon, illustrating several periods of masculine crisis throughout history some predating the women's movement and post-industrial societysuggesting that due to masculinity's fluid nature "crisis is constitutive of masculinity itself".
Although traditional gender norms are gradually changing, female athletes, especially those that participate in male-dominated sports such as boxing, weight lifting, American football, ice hockey, and motor sports, are still often viewed as deviating from the boundaries of femininity and may suffer repercussions such as discrimination or mistreatment from administrators, harassment by fans, and decreased media attention.
Psychologist Joseph Pleck argues that a hierarchy of masculinity exists largely as a dichotomy of homosexual and heterosexual males: "Our society uses the male heterosexual-homosexual dichotomy as a central symbol for all the rankings of masculinity, for the division on any grounds between males who are "real men" and have power, and males who are not".
Gender and Education.